Printed passive matrix addressed electrochromic displays

Andersson Ersman, P., Kawahara, J., Berggren, M.
Type of publication: 
Journal article

Flexible displays are attracting considerable attention as a visual interface for applications such as in electronic papers and paper electronics. Passive or active matrix addressing of individual pixels require display elements that include proper signal addressability, which is typically provided by non-linear device characteristics or by incorporating transistors into each pixel. Including such additional devices into each pixel element make manufacturing of flexible displays using adequate printing techniques very hard and complicated. Here, we report all-printed passive matrix addressed electrochromic displays (PMAD), built up from a very robust three-layer architecture, which can be manufactured using standard printing tools. Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) serves as the conducting and electrochromic pixel electrodes and carbon paste is used as the pixel counter electrodes. These electrodes sandwich self-assembled layers of a polyelectrolyte that are confined to desired pixel areas via surface energy patterning. The particular choice of materials results in a desired current vs. voltage threshold that enables addressability in electronic cross-point matrices. The resulting PMAD operates at less than 3 V, exhibits high colour switch contrast without cross-talk and promises for high-volume and low-cost production of flexible displays using reel-to-reel printing tools on paper or plastic foils.

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Published in: 
Organic Electronics, vol. 14, no. 12, pp. 3371-3378